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Malaysia and Selangor Mangrove Policy Mapping and Analysis

Published: 2022   |  DOI: 10.17031/e25n-j815

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This report presents an overview of a policy mapping activity which considers local, state, federal and international plans, laws, policies and directives that influence the conservation and management of mangroves in Malaysia.

  • The key actors that play an important role in mangrove policy creation and delivery are also mapped.
  • To reflect Malaysia’s federal system of government, the state of Selangor in Peninsula Malaysia is used as a case study to show how mangrove policies and actors span these decision-making levels.
  • The report identifies policy gaps and makes recommendations on how the policy landscape can be modified to support the sustainable management of mangroves within state and federal levels in Malaysia.


  • Relevant policy instruments and policy actors are identified through application of a Rapid Policy Network Mapping (RPNM) approach.
  • This approach enables visualisation of the mangrove policy landscape through the creation of policy instrument and policy actor maps.
  • The policy instrument map plots instruments by policy domain (international, regional, national, or local (state) scales), and policy category (cross-sectoral, forestry, fisheries, tourism, other environmental and non-environmental).
  • The policy actor map plots actors by policy domain and policy role (Influencer, Owner/Decision-Maker, Influencer/Deliverer, Deliverer.
  • A database of instruments and actors was also generated to record characteristics of both elements, which can become a resource for future policy assessments.


  • Forty-one policy instruments and forty-six policy actors are identified from this approach as influencing mangrove management to the state level.
  • The highest policy instrument activity occurs at the national level and within a crosssectoral context (i.e. biodiversity). Only five instruments are identified at the state level.
  • No fisheries/aquaculture instruments are featured through this process.
  • The highest number of policy actors operate at national level and are fairly equally distributed across the roles of Influencer, Owner/Decision-maker, and Influencer/Deliverer

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Cite this publication

Andrew Edwards-Jones, Hong Ching Goh, Soon Loong Lee, Nur Fatin Nabilah Ruslan, Ti Lian Lin, Melanie Austen & Amy Yee-Hui Then (2022). Malaysia and Selangor Mangrove Policy Mapping and Analysis - a report for the Nexus Action for Mangroves in Selangor (NexAMS) project. PML Publishing. 20 p. DOI: 10.17031/e25n-j815


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