Across the globe there is commitment to finding alternative sources of energy to reduce our dependency on the finite resources of fossil fuels. The marine environment remains the least developed region on Earth and holds great potential for the development of sustainable energy sources such as offshore wind and tidal power. However, the benefits of such new technologies need to be weighed against and the costs and risks to the marine environment.
Currently there is limited evidence available as to the local and regional impact of offshore and tidal installations and we are working to develop methods and techniques to assess these changes.
We are investigating new approaches to monitor marine life and assess the socio-economic impacts of renewable energy structures and have used the mathematical model FVCOM to assess and forecast the impacts of these structures on scales from a single turbine to an entire shelf sea.
Using our model we have demonstrated that although the effects of a single turbine are small, cumulatively the impacts of multiple installations can disrupt the flow of water, potentially altering marine ecosystems, and even the heights of tides. This can disrupt the benefits we derive from a healthy marine environment where even small changes to the tides can have damaging consequences for coastal habitats and flooding risks, particularly in conjunction with the changes already seen as a result of climate change.
In order to examine the wider costs, benefits and trade-offs of marine renewable energy, we have proposed and tested methods for holistic assessment of the impacts of tidal barrages and offshore wind farms on ecosystem services. Our environmental economists have also determined monetary values for the effects of these technologies on habitats, species and the seascape. We have further examined how the benefits of offshore wind farms could be maximised through co-location with commercial and recreational fishing activities. With the prospect of commercially viable tidal energy coming ever closer, we are examining public perceptions, the role of small scale and community-led initiatives, and the implications of tidal developments for regional economies.
Making a difference
Our work will inform future policy development and marine spatial planning when considering new sustainable energy generation sites so that environmental implications of new developments can be quantified and considered alongside economic concerns.
Selected key publications
Hooper, T; Austen, M. 2013. Tidal barrages in the UK: Ecological and social impacts, potential mitigation, and tools to support barrage planning. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 23: 289-298.
Hooper, T; Austen, M. 2014. The co-location of offshore windfarms and decapod fisheries in the UK: Constraints and opportunities. Marine Policy 43: 295-300.
Hooper, T; Ashley, M; Austen, M. 2015. Perceptions of fishers and developers on the co-location of offshore wind farms and decapods fisheries in the UK. Marine Policy 61: 16-22.
Related recent publications
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Cox, SL; Witt, MJ; Embling, CB; Godley, BJ; Hosegood, PJ; Miller, PI; Votier, SC; Ingram, SN. 2017 Temporal patterns in habitat use by small cetaceans at an oceanographically dynamic marine renewables test site in the Celtic Sea [in special issue: European Marine Megafauna] Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 141. 178-190. 10.1016/j.dsr2.2016.07.001
Queiros, AM; Huebert, KB; Keyl, F; Fernandes, JA; Stolte, W; Maar, M; Kay, S; Jones, MC; Hamon, KG; Hendriksen, G; Vermard, Y; Marchal, P; Teal, LR; Somerfield, PJ; Austen, MC; Barange, M; Sell, AF; Allen, JI; Peck, MA. 2016 Solutions for ecosystem-level protection of ocean systems under climate change. Global Change Biology, 22. 3927-3936. 10.1111/gcb.13423
Cazenave, P; Torres, R; Allen, JI. 2016 Unstructured grid modelling of offshore wind farm impacts on seasonally stratified shelf seas. Progress in Oceanography. /10.1016/j.pocean.2016.04.004
Pittman, SJ; Winship, AJ; Poti, M; Kinlan, BP; Leirness, JB; Baird, RW; Barlow, J; Becker, EA; Forney, KA; Hill, MC; Miller, PI; Mobley, J; Oleson, EM. 2016 Chapter 6: Marine Mammals - Cetaceans. In: Costa, BM; Kendall, MS, (eds.) Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Silver Spring, MD, USA, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 227-265, 359pp. (OCS Study BOEM 2016-035 and NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 214, OCS St).
Fleming, LE; McDonough, N; Austen, MC; Mee, L; Moore, MN; Hess, P; Depledge, MH; White, M; Philippart, K; Bradbrook, P; Smalley, A. 2014 Oceans and Human Health: A rising tide of challenges and opportunities for Europe. Marine Environmental Research, 99. 16-19. 10.1016/j.marenvres.2014.05.010